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History of the 1st Battalion, 77th Field Artillery

"On Guard"


  Battalion History

The 1st Battalion, 77th Field Artillery, "Falcons," was first constituted 1 July 1916 in the Regular Army as Troops A and B, 19th Cavalry and was organized on 11 June 1917 at Fort Ethan Allen, Vermont.  Their first duty was in support of operations on the southern border against Mexican bandits.  The unit was converted, consolidated, and redesignated on 1 November 1917 as Battery A, 77th Field Artillery.  The 77th Field Artillery was attached as a whole to the 4th Division on 19 November 1917.  The battalion distinguished itself during 5 major campaigns in World War I as a part of the 4th Division: Aisne-Marne, St. Mihiel, Meuse-Argonne, Champagne 1918, and Lorraine 1918.  After the First World War, the unit was inactivated at Camp Lewis, Washington on 21 September 1921.

While inactive, the 77th Field Artillery was relieved on 24 March 1923 from assignment to the 4th Division and assigned to the 7th Division.  It was then relieved on 1 January 1930 from assignment to the 7th Division and assigned to the 4th Division.  Battery A, 77th Field Artillery was reactivated on 1 January 1935 at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.  The 77th Field Artillery as a whole was relieved on 16 October 1939 from assignment to the 4th Division.

In preparation for World War II, the Battery was reorganized and redesignated on 24 February 1944 as Battery A, 634th Field Artillery Battalion.  As part of the 3rd Infantry Division, the battalion as a whole saw action in the Mediterranean campaigns of World War II.  The unit experienced intense combat from the French Riviera through the Vosages Mountains, and later participated in the final drive into Germany.  On 15 May 1945, the unit was redesignated as Battery A, 77th Field Artillery Battalion, and was inactivated on 4 January 1946 at Camp Kilmer, New Jersey.  It was disbanded entirely on 1 August 1946.

The unit was reconstituted on 20 December 1956 in the Regular Army as Battery A, 634th Field Artillery Rocket Battalion and activated on 1 January 1957 at Fort Hood, Texas.   It was reorganized and redesignated on 25 June 1958 as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 1st Missile Battalion, 77th Artillery, with its organic elements constituted on 1 June 1958 and activated on 25 June 1958.  The battalion was inactivated on 25 June 1959 in Germany.

The battalion was redesignated on 1 July 1960 as the 1st Howitzer Battalion, 77th Artillery, assigned to the 1st Cavalry Division, and activated in Korea.  It was redesignated on 1 September 1963 as the 1st Battalion, 77th Artillery.  After first moving to Fort Benning, Georgia as part of the reflagging of the 11th Air Assault Division (Test) to the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile), 1-77th Artillery arrived in Vietnam on 13 September 1965.  The battalion distinguished itself during action throughout Vietnam.  The battalion fought gallantly during bitter fighting in battles west of Plei Me, and for this received the Presidential Unit Citation.  The 1-77th Artillery went on to provide fires in the Chu Pong area, Bong Song, and Quang Ngai for the 1st Cavalry Division.  In February 1968, the unit fought in support of I Corps during the Tet offensive.  In November 1968, the battalion was shifted to the III Corps area of Quan Loi.  The battalion was awarded the Vietnamese Gallantry Cross with Palm, and the Valorous Unit Award for their actions.

In April 1971, 1-77th Artillery returned to Fort Hood, Texas from Vietnam with the 1st Cavalry Division.  The battalion was redesignated on 1 September 1971 as the 1st Battalion, 77th Field Artillery.  It actively participated in testing new equipment for the Army and provided fire support for first the 3rd Brigade and later for the 2nd Brigade.  Highlights of this period included a live fire training exercise in support of the 3rd Brigade at Fort Polk, Louisiana and participation in Joint Training Exercise Brave Shield with the 2nd Brigade at Fort Bliss in 1973.  The battalion was inactivated on 16 June 1986 at Fort Hood, Texas, and relieved from assignment to the 1st Cavalry Division.

The battalion was assigned on 17 August 1986 to the 194th Armored Brigade and activated at Fort Knox, Kentucky.  Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 1st Battalion, 77th Field Artillery, was reorganized and redesignated on 17 September 1990 as Battery A, 77th Field Artillery.  It remained assigned to the 194th Armored Brigade, with the remainder of battalion concurrently inactivated.  Battery A, 77th Field Artillery was inactivated on 29 June 1995 at Fort Knox, Kentucky, and relieved from assignment to the 194th Armored Brigade.

Battery A, 77th Field Artillery was redesignated on 16 June 1996 as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 1st Battalion, 77th Field Artillery, and activated at Fort Sill, Oklahoma with its organic elements concurrently activated.  The unit was activated as a Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) Battalion, assigned to the 75th Field Artillery Brigade, III Corps Artillery.

In 2000, 1-77th Field Artillery (MLRS) deployed elements to the National Training Center, providing reinforcing fires to the 3rd Brigade Combat Team (not to be confused with the modular brigade combat team), 2nd Infantry Division.  After supporting the Diamond Brigade and III Corps Artillery in the 1st Cavalry Warfighter exercise, the Falcons excelled in challenging platoon and battery evaluations.

The unit was redesignated on 1 October 2005 as the 1st Battalion, 77th Field Artillery Regiment.  It was inactivated on 15 March 2007 at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.

The battalion was assigned on 16 March 2008 to the 172nd Infantry Brigade (Separate) and activated in Germany.  The battalion deployed to Iraq in November 2008 for a one-year tour.  The battalion is currently the most modern and lethal artillery battalion in the United States Army, just being fielded  the embedded hardware and software to fire the Excaliber GPS guided projectile.


Lineage and Honors

Lineage

Constituted 1 July 1916 in the Regular Army as Troops A and B, 19th Cavalry.  Organized 11 June 1917 at Fort Ethan Allen, Vermont.  Converted, consolidated, and redesignated 1 November 1917 as Battery A, 77th Field Artillery.  (77th Field Artillery assigned 19 November 1917 to the 4th Division.)  Inactivated 21 September 1921 at Camp Lewis, Washington.  (77th Field Artillery relieved 24 March 1923 from assignment to the 4th Division and assigned to the 7th Division; relieved 1 January 1930 from assignment to the 7th Division and assigned to the 4th Division.)   Activated 1 January 1935 at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.  (77th Field Artillery relieved 16 October 1939 from assignment to the 4th Division.)

Reorganized and redesignated 24 February 1944 as Battery A, 634th Field Artillery Battalion.  Redesignated 15 May 1945 as Battery A, 77th Field Artillery Battalion.  Inactivated 4 January 1946 at Camp Kilmer, New Jersey.  Disbanded 1 August 1946.  Reconstituted 20 December 1956 in the Regular Army as Battery A, 634th Field Artillery Rocket Battalion.  Activated 1 January 1957 at Fort Hood, Texas.

Reorganized and redesignated 25 June 1958 as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 1st Missile Battalion, 77th Artillery (organic elements constituted 1 June 1958 and activated 25 June 1958).  Battalion inactivated 25 June 1959 in Germany.  Redesignated 1 July 1960 as the 1st Howitzer Battalion, 77th Artillery, assigned to the 1st Cavalry Division, and activated in Korea.  Redesignated 1 September 1963 as the 1st Battalion, 77th Artillery.  Redesignated 1 September 1971 as the 1st Battalion, 77th Field Artillery.

Inactivated 16 June 1986 at Fort Hood, Texas, and relieved from assignment to the 1st Cavalry Division.  Assigned 17 August 1986 to the 194th Armored Brigade and activated at Fort Knox, Kentucky.  Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 1st Battalion, 77th Field Artillery, reorganized and redesignated 17 September 1990 as Battery A, 77th Field Artillery, and remained assigned to the 194th Armored Brigade (remainder of battalion concurrently inactivated).  Inactivated 29 June 1995 at Fort Knox, Kentucky, and relieved from assignment to the 194th Armored Brigade.

Battery redesignated 16 June 1996 as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 1st Battalion, 77th Field Artillery, and activated at Fort Sill, Oklahoma (organic elements concurrently activated).  Redesignated 1 October 2005 as the 1st Battalion, 77th Field Artillery Regiment.  Inactivated 15 March 2007 at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.

Assigned 16 March 2008 to the 172d Infantry Brigade and activated in Germany.

Campaign Participation Credit

World War I
Aisne-Marne
St. Mihiel
Meuse-Argonne
Champagne 1918
Lorraine 1918

World War II
Sicily
Naples-Foggia
Anzio
Rome-Arno
Southern France (with Arrowhead)
North Apennines
Rhineland
Ardennes-Alsace
Central Europe
Po Valley

Vietnam
Defense
Counteroffensive
Counteroffensive, Phase II
Counteroffensive, Phase III
Tet Counteroffensive
Counteroffensive, Phase IV
Counteroffensive, Phase V
Counteroffensive, Phase VI
Tet 69/Counteroffensive
Summer-Fall 1969
Winter-Spring 1970
Sanctuary Counteroffensive
Counteroffensive, Phase VII

War on Terrorism
Global War on Terrorism

Decorations

Presidential Unit Citation (Army), Streamer embroidered PLEIKU PROVINCE (1st Battalion, 77th Artillery, cited; DA GO 40, 1967)

Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered FISH HOOK (1st Battalion, 77th Artillery, cited; DA GO 43,1972)

Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1965-1969, (1st Battalion, 77th Artillery cited; DA GO 59, 1969)

Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1969-1970, (1st Battalion, 77th Artillery cited; DA GO 42, 1972)

Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1970-1971, (1st Battalion, 77th Artillery cited; DA GO 42, 1972)

Republic of Vietnam Civil Action Honor Medal, First Class, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1969-1970 (1st Battalion, 77th Artillery cited; DA GO 42, 1972)

Headquarters Battery, 1st Battalion, additionally entitled to Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered PHOUC LONG PROVINCE (Headquarters and Service Battery, 1st Battalion, 77th Artillery cited; DA GO 2, 1971)

Battery C additionally entitled to Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered QUANG TIN PROVINCE (Battery C, 1st Battalion, 77th Artillery cited; DA GO 39, 1970), and Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered TAY NINH PROVINCE (C Battery, 1st Battalion, 77th Artillery, cited; DA GO 5, 1973)